Hampshire Industrial Archaeology Society
FOCUS on Industrial Archaeology No. 77,
A day trip to the Isle of Wight
“Harry Potter’s” railway bridge moved to Mid-Hants Railway
The Heritage at Risk register
English Industrial Heritage at risk
‘At risk’ sites in Hampshire
Heritage crime survey
Meetings Reports June to November 2011
see Past Meetings page
Association for Industrial Archaeology Conference
Twyford Waterworks Trust
Tram 57 Project
Canal news items
A day trip to the Isle of Wight
As the sun rose over Eastleigh, the bus set off for
Southampton’s Town Quay to board the ferry owned by the shipping company with
the longest name (Southampton, Isle of
Wight & South of England Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. Ltd.), bound for
the Isle of Wight. On arriving at
Our first task was to identify two concrete houses
and then a stop was made to see the view of the River Medina from the area of
the Osborne House estate of Queen
We arrived at Broadlands,
Then we headed to Freshwater and stopped at the
road crossing of the disused railway track which is now a nature trail. The
Harry Ferguson museum at King’s Manor was our next visit – a wonderful collection of
tractors, ploughs and memorabilia telling the story of his life in
From the calm of this area we then went to the windswept cliffs at The Needles where the engines for Black Knight and Black Arrow were tested. Large concrete structures still remain and thoughts about the people who worked there in far-from-pleasant conditions came to mind.
Lunch at the Old Battery was next and a prowl
around the site to view the Guns and get a feel of the place if you had been
stationed here during the 1st or 2nd World War. Leaving here we then went to
Upon leaving the Mill we made our way back to
Our own special thanks were given to Andy Fish for arranging the trip and driving the bus . . . and the backing down to the Old Battery is imprinted on the memory for ever!
“Harry Potter’s” railway bridge moved to Mid-Hants Railway
The Mid-Hants Railway Trust (The Watercress Line) are close to an agreement with Network Rail for the acquisition and relocation of the 1893 footbridge that, until about two years ago, spanned the full width of King’s Cross Station. As the bridge formed part of a Grade 1 Listed Building, English Heritage was insistent that it be removed in a way that would allow it to be re-used elsewhere.
According to Dr Bill Fawcett, who has published
many books on Railway Architecture, “The
bridge itself is a run-of-the-mill lattice girder design produced by the iron
founder Andrew Handyside & Co. Other surviving examples of their work
include the ridge-and-furrow platform roofs at Nottingham Station ,
platform roofing with quite ornate ironwork at
The plan is to resurrect the bridge and erect it across the railway and loco yard at Ropley to provide a vantage point for visitors to watch the trains. They also intend to provide information boards on the history of the bridge including details of the manufacturer, etc.
[Since Carol wrote this item, the agreement between
Network Rail and the MHR was signed in September and the iron bridge – which was seen in ‘Harry Potter’
films as King’s Cross was the location used for the departure of the Hogwart's Express – was transported to
The Heritage at Risk Register
Today, October 2011 –
According to an article in October’s edition of English Heritage magazine, which begins with Battersea Power Station and the problems with what to do with it since being decommissioned in 1983, it then goes through various options, which have, so far, come to nothing. It goes on to say that this is one of many industrial sites which seem to “have withered on the vine of national apathy or economic woes”. The article then goes on to say that “at last there is genuine hope. This year’s campaign to support the annual publication of the Heritage at Risk Register – launched this month – is devoted to our industrial heritage, highlighting those listed buildings threatened by neglect, decay or even demolition. We’ll also publish the results of our research into what the public think about this type of architecture and our ideas on how to ensure our industrial heritage lives on”.
The article finishes with an invitation to the public to get involved, etc, and, to find out more about “at risk sites in your area”, go to www.english-heritage.org.uk/risk
English Industrial Heritage at risk
“English Heritage has recently produced a major report on buildings at risk which highlights the state of industrial buildings. Industrial buildings are more at risk of destruction than any other kinds of heritage. 80% of people believe Industrial Heritage is as important as castles or country houses. Almost 11% (129) of grade 1 and grade 2* industrial buildings are at risk of neglect, decay or demolition. That compares to the average across all Grade 1 and Grade 2* structures, where 3% of buildings are at risk. 40% of listed industrial buildings at risk could be put to sustainable and economic new uses.
The type of industrial building at risk varies across England, with water and windmills featuring highly in the East of England, maritime structures making the most of those at risk in the South East and textile mills concentrated in Lancashire, Greater Manchester and West Yorkshire. The remaining 60% – typically buildings that contain historic machinery, redundant engineering structures or mining remains – are of immense cultural value.
As part of the efforts to tackle the problems facing buildings and sites, English Heritage is bringing out a new set of guidance as well as £2m in grants to help owners protect vacant historic buildings until uses can be found for them. There will also be help for heritage rescue groups which could be the answer for the 60% of buildings which cannot be re-used. English Heritage will also part-fund a Support Officer to help trusts and voluntary groups which run sites as visitor attractions. It will also carry out at least 25 projects over the next few years to look a particular parts of England's industrial Heritage such as the lead mines of Derbyshire, the motor industry and water mills and aqueducts.”
The above summary appeared on the BBC website. Much more can
be found on the English Heritage website, including a study by Neil Cossons entitled “A Future for Preserved
Industrial Sites in
Among English Heritage’s "Priority Heritage at Risk Sites 2011” are these industrial sites (I have omitted military, agricultural, conservation areas etc., sites). N.B. On large, complex, sites most structures may not be ‘at risk’ :- Bass Maltings, Sleaford; North Mill, Belper; Darley Abbey Mills; Snibston Colliery; Tilty Water Mill, Essex; Hanwell flight of canal locks; House Mill tide mill, Newham; Lead mine structures on Alston Moor; Bowes Railway; Tynemouth railway station; Hammerhead crane, Cowes, IoW; Sheerness Dockyard; Birnbeck Pier, Weston-super-Mare (not the recently re-opened fire-damaged one); a carriage works in Bristol; Tone textile Mills, Somerset; Guns Mill Barn charcoal blast furnace, Gloucestershire; Swindon Mechanics Institute; Ditherington Flax Mill; Middleport Pottery, Stoke-on-Trent; a coffin furniture works, Birmingham; Snailbeach lead mine structures; the first Cloth Hall, Leeds; Wensley lead smeltmill and mines complex, Yorkshire; Malthouse at Kirklees Park, Yorkshire; Leah’s Cutlery Works, Sheffield, Lead mine structures on Grassington Moor, Yorkshire.
Having visited two of the above sites in the last year, I can give more detail. At Snailbeach much work has already been done on many of the structures, including re-roofing the miner’s dry to make a visitor centre and consolidating the remains of some others, but other parts of the site are still deteriorating. The site is run by volunteers from the Shropshire Caving Society and occasionally underground tours are given along part of a level.
On the September Heritage Open Days this year, Ditherington Flax Mill was open, with guided tours. The main mill (of 1797, Grade 1) is encased in scaffolding inside and out and access is limited as it is considered in a dangerous condition – English Heritage, which now owns the mill, is putting funding together for remedial work, The cross mill (1812, Grade 1) was open, as also the warehouse (1805, Grade 1) and both had some exhibitions in. One part of the malt kiln (1897, Grade 1) could be seen but the rest was considered dangerous. The Apprentice House (1812, Grade 2*) could only be viewed from the outside as could the Dye House (1850, Grade 2*), the latter being considered too unsafe even to be looked in by the tours. Of the concrete South and North grain silos, from the malting era (1950/1960, unlisted) the ground floor of the former was seen and it is planned to retain this, but the North silo will have to be demolished. The stables functioned as the visitor reception and the offices (both 1804, Grade 2) are still present. The whole site is vacant and it appears that only work to reduce deterioration has so far been undertaken. At present it is planned to have a range of re-uses for the buildings once restored.
Some 'Heritage at Risk' sites in Hampshire
1912 Hammerhead Crane at
Barns at Manor Farm, Old Burghclere,
Haslar Gunboat Yard, HMS Dolphin,
At the Royal Defence Agency, Farnborough: Building Q121 (24ft wind tunnel, built 1934/35), repairs are complete, and Building R133 (transonic wind tunnel of 1939, modified 1956), repairs complete. Both buildings are noted as ‘future use uncertain but owner exploring solutions’.
Scheduled Monument at risk: Chalk Hill Lock on the former
Star Hotel in the High Street, suffering from deferred maintenance.
Red Lion Public House, also in the High Street, suffering from water ingress and deferred maintenance
Chapel Mills, American Wharf on the River Itchen, suffering from lack of maintenance. Application for domestic use could now be implemented.
Heritage Crime Survey
Carol received a communication in October from the
Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies (CURDS) at
The true extent of heritage crime has proved very difficult to measure and CURDS is carrying out a survey, via an online questionnaire, to help English Heritage and other agencies to understand better the risks and vulnerability of different heritage assets in different settings.
By ‘heritage crime’, they mean any offence which
harms the value of England’s heritage assets and their settings and could
include crimes such as theft, removal of objects of historic interest, criminal
damage, arson and offences of anti-social behaviour leading to harm to historic
buildings, monuments or spaces. Types of heritage being covered include
Association for Industrial Archaeology Annual Conference 2011
. . . at
Report by Tony Yoward
The AIA Conference was held in
The organiser in
The first day we had lectures in the morning
ranging from A Quaker textile village,
Narrow gauge railways of
The afternoon visit was to Midleton Distillery. This was their museum and we were able to see all the processes, the huge copper still and the 22ft Fairbairn suspension waterwheel. Unfortunately no samples of the Whiskey were available and we did not have enough time to visit the ‘live’ part of the distillery.
Saturday there were talks on Cork Butter Exchange, the largest in the world, The archaeology of distilling in
On Sunday the AGM of the Society was followed by a visit to the Royal Gunpowder Mills site at Ballincollig – a very spread out site as one would expect at a gunpowder factory. Luckily it was a fine day so a walk in the countryside was quite enjoyable. Some buildings remain, and to see the restored mill was well worth the walk, but much of the site required a great deal of interpretation.
Next day we had a long coach journey to the
Another photo-stop was to see the Overton Cotton Mill, but there was not enough time for a visit. The mill was completed in 1802, driven by a 40-foot suspension wheel, and the buildings extended substantially about 1810 by adding a second five-storey wing. It is completely derelict.
After a long journey, some 90 miles, we arrived at
the Allihies Copper Mine on the end of the
The empty shells of a couple of the pumping engines
can be seen but the principle remains is the man engine house erected in 1862.
This operated to a depth of 248 fathoms (1494ft) in steps of 2 fathoms (12ft).
We were let loose on the site and everyone disappeared up into the remains and
it was well over an hour before we all returned to the coach. It was a long
journey back to
Tuesday was a walk round
Wednesday was a walk round Limerick docklands and
in the afternoon was a visit to the
The generating plant at Ardnacrusha is composed of
three vertical-shaft “Francis” turbine generators (of 1929) and one
vertical-shaft Kaplan turbine generator of 1934 operating under an average head
of 28.5 metres. The scheme was originally designed for six turbines, with four
Siemens-Shuckert turbines fitted. The 85 MW of generating plant in Ardnacrusha
was adequate to meet the electricity demand of the entire country in the early
years but now generates barely 2% of the
Here we were able to wander round the site built on the 100ft dam to see the massive 20ft penstock tubes leading down to the turbines, the vertical hydraulic fish ladder and the two 50ft locks to take boats from the upper level down to the river below. This had entailed building a large headrace some 7½ miles long to bring water from the River Shannon to the site.
Next day we visited Cobh on
Cobh is the town where the bodies from the sinking
We visited many new places, but the distances and the timekeeping were a problem. The venue was good but the distance from the accommodation to the food and lectures was too far. The group was too large for one leader, which made it impossible for many to hear the guide. There was no bar or common room available (nine bars in the University, and all closed) so one did not get together in the evenings. I am glad I went!
After the conference I wandered off exploring the
small roads over the mountains, arriving just outside
Twyford Waterworks Trust
The Heritage Lottery Fund project continues to progress well although the deadline has now been extended to next spring. The project team has been extremely busy evaluating all the building and restoration parts of the programme with most attention recently focused on reviewing final project costs prior to submission. This summer, one notable development has been the appointment of an engineering consultant, who has reviewed the boilerwork plans in particular and confirmed that the restoration as proposed is feasible.
Of some concern has been the repair of the Engine House roof so that the building can be transformed from its present damp and leaking state to a condition fit for a priceless pumping engine which will celebrate its centenary in 2014. In October came the welcome news that Southern Water, as the owner of the buildings, has committed to carrying out significant essential building repairs, vital as the Trust must be able to demonstrate a plan of repair to HLF before our application will be considered. The work, which in particular will see the main roofs repaired and some much needed external redecoration, should commence in 2012. Once completed, some internal decoration, especially to the walls of the Engine House and Diesel House can take place.
Earlier in the summer, a contractor under the instruction of Southern Water carried out a much-needed roof repair to the Boiler House, followed by repointing to all the buildings where mortar had been lost. The Trust is most grateful to Southern Water for all these undertakings.
Other site restoration and maintenance has included the addition of corrugated roofing to “Amport House”, the structure next to the Toilets that houses the Amport pump. Salvaged guttering, stored for many years, has been refurbished and attached to the new roof.
Opposite, the large water tank for the boiler has
received needle gun treatment to remove significant amounts of rust to enable
the first coats of green paint to be applied. The chimney has had an inspection
and, reassuringly, there is comparatively little work required on it despite
its exposed position. In the Filter House, reassembly of the filter tank
walkways and handrails has commenced. Regarding machinery, the restoration of
A more novel restoration has been that of an old hand pump donated to us some years ago from a nearby farm and “starred” in the revived Twyford Village Carnival in June. The Trust was granted the honour of leading the procession. In mid July, the TWT publicity stand went to Amberley for their annual Railway Gala which, as ever, generated good publicity.
The 2011 Open Day season has been good overall despite being more weather-affected than usual. The Industrial Railway and Communications Open Day on June 5th, for example, did not enjoy the best of conditions with the rain starting bang on opening time and continuing for most of the day. Similarly, the Fire Engines & Vintage Vehicles Day on September 4th also started very wet but a steady trickle of visitors nonetheless made the most of things. Visitors arrived in greater numbers when conditions improved making the day a lot better than first feared. Thankfully, October’s end of season Rally was extremely well attended and is considered the third busiest in recent years.
Next year’s open day season will see various changes, not least June, the first Sunday of which will clash with The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee bank holiday weekend and July’s event has been moved clear of the Hat Fair in Winchester. Both open days will move to the second Sunday of the respective months. Of the other events, the Miniature Steam open day will be revamped and an Edwardian theme will replace Rural Crafts in August. As the Trust enters a period where income is vital more so than at any time to date, admission prices for adults will rise to £5 in 2012.
Twyford Waterworks Open Days
April 8th – Easter Sunday Guided Tour Day: May 6th – Spring Rally: June 10th – Railway Gala: July 8th – Miniature Steam Power. Admission £5 for adults, under 16s free. Open 11am to 4pm.
Tram 57 Project
For the first time in many issues we have much to
report on progress with the tram project since the last edition of Focus. On
August 24th the two Southampton trams, Car 11 and Car 38, were moved from store
in Unit 31,
Lisbon 715 was finally moved by different contractors on
Wednesday November 2nd from long-term storage at
Following soon after the move of the
SS Shieldhall: Following the disappointing news, announced in the June Focus, that corrosion in Shieldhall’s frames and plates under the engine room had meant that its passenger certificate could not be renewed until remedial work was undertaken, options were considered in order that the vessel could take part in the Titanic commemorations in April. A Stage One Heritage Lottery Fund application was being completed for submission by December 4th to enable major work to be carried out, including dry-docking for complete shot-blasting of the hull below the waterline for inspection of all of the plating. However, it is highly unlikely that, in the timescale, this could be carried out prior to April, so the MCA has agreed on intermediate repairs being made to the affected frames, which is being carried out by a certified welder.
'Titanic' centenary commemorations: Oh no! I hear everyone say. Well, we can’t get away from the fact that the White Star liner DID depart from Southampton on April 10th 1912 and did hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic just before midnight on the 14th and sank on the 15th with great loss of life – not the least a large number of the crew members who hailed from the town. The cruise ship Balmoral will be departing on the 8th to the spot where Titanic sank, for a service and wreath-laying on the 15th. Two of our heritage ships are due to take part in the commemorations in Southampton‘s Eastern Docks on the 10th. The Tug Tender Calshot is due be tied up at the former Ocean Terminal site at 43/44 berth from where Titanic departed, and the Shieldhall on the opposite side of Ocean Dock alongside the new Ocean Terminal. At midday Shieldhall will sound her siren and whistle and, providing a temporary passenger certificate is granted, depart with a full load down Southampton Water. Other civic events are planned. Shieldhall is also due to undertake a commemoration cruise on the 14th and lay a wreath. A source, who will remain anonymous, commented that it was believed all the local ferry services (Blue Funnel, Red Funnel, etc) were already fully booked on various port cruises, so Shieldhall may be the only vessel with room to spare.
Merger of Maritime bodies
The newsletter for the Maritime Heritage Trust,
Autumn 2011, announced that, following several months of discussions, the
‘Heritage Afloat’ organisation agreed to merge with the ‘Maritime Trust’ (a
registered charity with the Duke of Edinburgh as its patron) to form a new
organisation named ‘Maritime Heritage Trust’. “It will continue its role as the primary means by which
Canal News Items
The Itchen Navigation
For the past four years, the Hampshire & Isle
of Wight Wildlife Trust has been painstakingly restoring the Itchen Navigation,
which runs from
Canal & River Trust
In last December’s Focus I mentioned that British
Waterways was to be turned into a Charitable Trust. In the Inland Waterways
Association’s Winter 2011 magazine ‘Waterways’
is an article to explain the new situation. It states that “the transition trustees of the new charity
being established to tend 2,000 miles of canals and rivers in
Heritage Lottery Fund supports last steam-driven brickworks in the
(press release July 2011, Pam Moore, Secretary, Hampshire Buildings Preservation Trust)
Earlier in the year, Bursledon Brickworks Industrial Museum was awarded a ‘first round pass’ grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund of £61,300, which will enable the project to make substantial progress in preparing a business plan to provide a better museum interpretation, to work towards improved disabled access and take forward plans for essential repairs. The Project now has up to two years to submit fully developed proposals to compete for a firm award.
Bursledon Brickworks is owned by the Hampshire Buildings Preservation Trust. The Museum’s chairman commented that professional and financial help are no longer available from Hampshire County Council and that, without a huge commitment from the many volunteers, the restoration of the Brickworks would have stalled and the future of the site could have been in jeopardy.
Dr Carolyne Haynes of the Management Team said that this award will cover employing consultants to help develop a business plan for the museum, improve the interpretation, assess the essential repairs and design a small amount of new work including a proper first floor access.
Hampshire County Council’s Manor Farm at Bursledon has been chosen as the filming location for the next instalment of the BBC’s ‘Victorian Farm’ and ‘Edwardian Farm’ series, entitled 'War-time Farm'. Filming is underway and will continue for the next year, focussing on the Second World War and all aspects of domestic and farming life of the period, using the cottage and farmland at Manor Farm. Long standing presenters Peter Ginn, Ruth Goodman and Alex Langlands will be on site around ten days each month but the farm will stay open during filming and visitors may glimpse the action, although access in some areas may be limited. The series is scheduled to be aired on BBC-2 in late 2012. The farm and country park is open November to March on Sundays only, 10 to 4; 2 April to 31 October 10 to 5.
Flying Boat Hangar at Hythe gains Listing . . . but too late for cladding
(Graham Parkes, from the July 2011 edition of the Waterside Heritage newsletter)
The 1st World War Hangar used to build Felixstowe and other flying boats at Hythe has been listed as a Grade 2 Listed Building. Unfortunately English Heritage took 3½ years after their initial favourable report before the full listing. In that time – and it has only been completed in the last two months – the 1918 corrugated iron cladding of the building has been completely replaced by modern light-coloured sheet metal and windows. Our initial work in asking for the listing and provision of historic details has demonstrated that we were right to set the process in motion, but what have we lost because of wasted time within English Heritage?
The Itchen Navigation ISBN 978-0-905280-10-3
Published by HIAS, this is an updated version of Dr
Edwin Course’s 1983 SUIAG publication with 17 new photos in colour and a foreword
The Mills and Millers of Hampshire, Vol 1, Central ISBN 978-0-9569034-0-2
Published by the Hampshire Mills Group. The first volume in this completely new survey covers mills on the Rivers Itchen, Hamble, Arle and Meon, as well as tide and spring-fed mills. It is priced at £12.99, or £14.99 by post (cheques payable to Hampshire Mills Group) from Eleanor (address as for Itchen Navigation). The book covers 72 mills, over 500 millers are identified and 300 research references are listed in its 160 full colour pages. The foreword was written by the Hon Ralph Montagu.
Hamble – Warsash Ferry
HIAS member David Cheffy writes: “Earlier this year a comprehensive, but concise, history of the river crossing was produced, written by the chairman of the Hamble Local History Society, Ian Underdown. Its origins go back to the 14th century.
It is a quality fully illustrated 22-page booklet, well worth the £2 cover price to anyone who uses or knows the ferry. It is available on the ferry or at their office on the Hamble side.”
Industrial Archaeology – a handbook ISBN 978-1-902771-92-2
Written by Marilyn Palmer, Mike Nevell and Mark Sissons of the AIA, this Council for British Archaeology book is due to be published in March 2012 at a cost of £25. The flyer comments “This book will be essential reading for professionals, academics, students and anyone with an interest in our industrial heritage, giving concise summaries of the structures and remains likely to be encountered.” It also goes into the current legislative situation for industrial remains and the history of their protection.
Hedge End, A view from the Past
A new book written by Stephen Tanti, who runs his
own book shop in Hedge End, this is described as a “fascinating glimpse into
the past, back to the days when the local community was a real village”. Hedge
End was once agricultural land, market gardens, strawberry fields and quiet
country lanes. Stephen has used old photographs and postcards, the latter of
which would only have had a very small print run. One of the former residents
was the aviator Bert Hinkler who lived from 1922 to 1925 at the top of
Spitbank Fort is being converted into an eight-bedroom luxury bolt hole, its concrete casing giving way to an outdoor hot tub, a sauna, a champagne bar, a wine cellar, a spa, a gym and sun decks. Accessible by chopper or boat, it will suit hedonists in search of privacy. Sleeps 16, from March (booking now open), from £333pp a night, including food and drink. www.amazingretreats.com (from the Sunday Times Travel Supplement, 27th November, under the heading ‘The most spectacular self-catering properties‘’
A bit of history vanished on
£550,000 to study New Forest's war: The National Heritage
Lottery Fund has made a grant to the National Park Authority to fund research
Lottery grant for submarine museum: The
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